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Comparative Studies on Physicochemical Properties and fatty Acids Composition of Seed Oil of Jatropha curcas and Jatropha glauca

Rania D.M. Albasha, Mawahib E.M. ElNour, Rajaa.S.M.Abadi , Marmar A. El Siddig

(The aim of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the seeds oil of Jatropha curcas (L) and Jatropha glauca collected from two different regions of Sudan. The physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods. Results showed that the specific gravity and refractive index @ 250C were 0.943 and 1.473 for J.curcas compared to 0.951 and 1.470 for J.glauca, respectively. The recorded acid values, saponification number, peroxide values and % of free fatty acids (mgKOHg-1 oil) were, in order, 9.537 and 14.025; 193.40 and 206.70; 1.93 and 2.3; 4.769 and 7.012 for J.curcas and J.glauca, respectively. On the other hand, iodine values (g100g-1oil) were 114.64 and 117.08 for J.curcas and J.glauca, respectively. Fatty acids composition of the two species was revealed using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The dominant unsaturated fatty acids of Jatropha curcas seeds oil were oleic acid (37.03%) and linoleic acid (21.60%), while the saturated fatty acids were stearic acid (10.95%), palmatic acid (17.81%) and archidic (1.00%). Comparatively, the unsaturated fatty acids of J. glauca were linoleic acid (51.74%) and oleic acid (15.37%) whereas the saturated fatty acids of this species were stearic acid (13.18%), palmatic acid (14.92%) and archidic(1.14%). The results of chemical and physical properties of seed oil of the two jatropha species suggest that the seed oil may be suitable for industrial purposes such as production of soaps, paints and lubricants. At the same time, results obtained from (GC) analysis revealed that the types of fatty acids of J. curcas seed oil may be more suitable for production of biodiesel than that of other species.