Innovation in the global energy sector is increasingly imperative to buttress economic and environmental sustainability moving forwards. Negative resource trends, climate change and rising energy demand mean that finding innovative solutions to lessen our reliance on traditional sources is increasingly vital. Enabling innovation alliances between low-income developing countries and the developed world is essential for both to gain maximum benefit from upcoming energy technologies while also creating solutions to key global energy challenges. This study will establish the scope for global innovation alliances in the energy sector in order to maximise the return on investment and sustainable impact. It will utilise case studies to demonstrate the success of international collaboration in this critical and growing industry. Furthermore, it will examine the role of summits such as the G20, which are often ideal forums to form strategic innovation alliances, as well as develop policies to incentivise ongoing relationships between developing and developed countries in this sector.