For many Latin Americans, the 21st century has been a time of unprecedented progress. However, a large population in Latin America, namely African descendants has not benefited much from the impressive economic growth. In fact, they have remained constantly poor since the beginning of this century. This paper aims to explore the question of why African descendants in Latin America suffer from persistent chronic poverty with a specific focus on African descendants living in Brazil. The first section of this paper explains what chronic poverty is, and the drivers of chronic poverty. Then, a case study of Brazil is presented to identify the main causes that lead to African descendants’ persistent chronic poverty. Furthermore, the paper highlights the role racial discrimination plays in limiting the range of opportunities available to African descendants and in ensuring the persistence of chronic poverty in their communities. Finally, the paper discusses what could be done for African descendants to over-come chronic poverty.